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ANCIENT LANGUAGE

History
The ancient language used to be spoken by all living things throughout the world. It used to be just what the name implies - simply a language. However, after magic had wreaked havoc in the world, a race known as the Grey Folk performed a powerful and complicated spell that bonded magic and the ancient language together, so that the former could be performed by speaking the right words in the latter without any confusion and chaos.

The Grey Folk's spell also gave the ancient language two new powers. The first was the ability to describe the true nature of things - anyone who knows the name of something in the ancient language has power over that thing. The second was a power that prevented anyone from lying when speaking in the ancient language (it is unknown why the Grey Folk decided to do this).

Years passed, and after a while, the ancient language was entirely forgotten in Alagaësia. Eons later, however, the ancient language was brought back into Alagaësia by the elves when they came to settle in that land, and it was taken up by magic users to aid them in their spells. By the time Eragon was born, it was spoken as a native tongue only by the elves, who apparently lacked the creative spark to come up with their own language.

Sentence Construction
Looking to learn the ancient language? This is that part of the article! To start off, here are some notes on ancient language sentence structure that you should remember:

1. Descriptions are placed after the object they describe. The most common mistake made by people trying to speak the ancient language is to place adjectives before nouns. Here's how to do it properly.
Example: "Aí skulblaka ramr" means "a strong dragon", but literally translates as "a dragon strong".

2. Unlike in English, descriptions can be placed in any order following the object.
Example: "Aí oro ramr hvitr" (a strong, white arrow) can also be rendered as "aí oro hvitr ramr" (a white, strong arrow).

3. Aside from descriptions, the structure of a sentence in the ancient language is usually the same as it would be in English.
Example: "Gath un reisa du rakr" would literally translate as "unite and raise the mist". No restructuring of the sentence was required.

4. There are no participles (e.g. walking, swimming) in the ancient language. Verbs are either past simple (e.g. walked, swam), present simple (e.g. walk, swim) or future simple (e.g. will walk, will swim).
Example: "I am following" would have to be rendered as "I follow" (Eka tauthr) in the ancient language; "I was following" as "I followed" (Eka tauthro) and "I will be following" as "I will follow" (Eka weohnata tauthr).

5. In our experience with the ancient language, we have found that "iet" (my) usually precedes the object it possesses unless there is an auxiliary verb preceding the object as well; then "iet" moves behind the possessed object.
Example: "He breaks my shield" becomes "älfr jierda iet skölir", but "He is my shield" becomes "älfr er skölir iet."

6. When two nouns are joined together to form a single noun, the descriptive noun comes first, as it does in English.
Example: "Fethrblaka" (bird) is a combination of the nouns "fethr" (feather) and "blaka" (flapper).

Prefixes
äf-: gives words a malignant connotation. For example, "taka" (give) becomes äftaka (steal).
eld-: changes verbs into nouns of action. For example, "jierda" (break) becomes "eld jierda" (breaker).

Suffixes
-ar: pluralises nouns ending on consonants. If the noun already ends with "r", place an "a" before it. For example, "draumr" (dream) becomes "draumar" (dreams). However, if the noun already has a vowel before the "r", the suffix "-ya" is used. For example, "edur" (tor) becomes "edya" (tors).
-í: changes verbs ending with any letter (except for "i" and "r") to past tense. For example, "haina" (harm) becomes "hainaí" (harmed).
-o: forms the past tense of verbs ending with "i" and "r". For example, "skölir" (shield) becomes "sköliro" (shielded)
-r: gives nouns a masculine connotation. For example, "älf" (elf) becomes "älfr" (male elf), which is also he in the Ancient Language.
-s: makes nouns possessive. For example, "könungr" (king) becomes "könungrs" (king's).
-sja: adds "-looking" to the end of adjectives. For example, "ramr" (strong) becomes "ramrsja" (strong-looking).
-ya: pluralises nouns ending on vowels. It also replaces the last vowel. For example, "agaetí" (celebration) becomes "agaetya" (celebrations). If the "-ya" interferes with the word's pronunciation, the vowel it would normally replace isn't removed. The vowels "a" and "i" are usually changed to "e". For example, "celöbra" (honor) becomes "celöbreya" (honours).

Articles, Conjunctions, Auxiliary Verbs, Prepositions
a:
am: eddyr
and: un
are: eru
backward: aptr
be: waíse
did: achí
do: ach
does: ach (the same as "do", see 4. above)
for: wiol
forward: fram
from: fra
in: unin
is: er
let: atra
may:
not: néiat
of: abr
that: sem
the: du
this: thornessa
to: eom
was: ero
were: erní
will: weohnata
with: un (the same as "and")

Pronouns
I: eka
he: älfr
me: eka (the same as "I")
my (formal): pömnuria
my (informal): iet
she: älfrinn
their: theirra
they: therr
those: thorna
us: nosu
you: ono
your: onr
Nouns
air: vindr
arrow: oro
bat: lethrblaka
bird: fethrblaka
blanket: nagz
blood: blödh
bond of trust: yawë
brow: brun
calves: kalfya
celebration: agaetí
city: dras
cripple: togira
day: dag
death: anglát, freohr
dominance: domia
dragon: skulblaka
Dragon Rider: Shur'tugal
dream: draumr
dwarves: dvergar
ears: eyreya
earth: deloi
elf: älf
elf-kind: älfakyn
family: breoal
fate: wyrda
feather: fethr
fire: brisingr, istalrí
fool's wisdom: orothrim
forest: welden
Forsworn: Wyrdfell
friend: fricai, vinr
gate: grind
good fortune: esterní
greetings: kvertha
hand: lam
happiness: ilian
heart: hjarta
hell: hel
honour: celöbra
king: könungr
knife: knífr
leaf: laufsbläd
leather: lethr
life: líf
light: garjzla
lip balm: nalgask
luck: guliä
magic: vanyalí
master: ebrithil
memory: manin
misery: zar'roc
misfortune: rauthr
mist: rakr
Morning Star: Aiedail
mortal: dauthleikr
mountains: fells
movement: sharjalví
oath: ren
palm: gedwëy
path: gata
peace: mor'ranr
picture created through magic: fairth
plains: völlar
purple-flowered plant: delois
sage: osthato
scale: skul
script: liduen
serpent: orúm
shadows: súndavar
shield: skölir
silver: arget
sorrow: baen
Spine, the: Carthungavë
stars: evarínya
stick: vöndr
stone: stenr
sword: sverd
thornapple: haldthin
thought: hugin
tor: edur
war: fyrn
warder: varden
water: adurna
witch: seithr
woman: koma
Verbs and Adjectives
bind: malthinae
blasted: nángoröth
bore (baby): burthr
break: jierda
bright: bjart
broad: böetk
burn: eldrvarya
catch: kodthr
change: moi
dull: gëuloth
empty: eyddr
find: finna
flap: blaka
follow: tauthr
go: gánga
hallowed: shelgr
halt: blöthr
harm: haina
heal: heill
hear: hóna
hold: huildr
ill: vandr
invoke: ethgri
lack: vanta
leave: eitha
live: lífa
marked: fodhr
mean: malabra
mourn: chetowä
need: vanta
oaken: ekar
poetic: kvaedhí
raise: reisa
reduce: brakka
release: losna
rest: stydja
rise: rïsa
rule: thelduin
run: hlaupa
sharp: hvass
shine: ignasia
silent: hljödhr
sing: gala
sleep: slytha
stare: kópa
stay: sitja
steal: äftaka
stop: letta
strong: ramr
take: taka
temper: tuatha
thank: elrun
thrust: thrysta
traverse: thverr
unconquerable: edoc'sil
under: undir
unite: gath
wander: vrangr
ward: vard
watch: varda
white: hvitr
whole: ikonoka
                                                                                              This material was takenfrom Shur'tugal site
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